The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement’s (IEA) flagship Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is a valuable resource to inform better understanding of bullying trends in general, as well as revealing the relationship between bullying and academic achievement, both within and between countries. The TIMSS student questionnaire for grade four students features an eight-item scale that asks individual students about their bullying victimization experiences. Such contextual data permits researchers to analyze the percentage of students that report being a victim of bullying and connect this information with achievement results to examine the relationship between bullying and achievement in both mathematics and science. TIMSS 2015 provides evidence of a strong international association between bullying and mathematics achievement at the fourth grade. This analysis of the international grade 4 TIMSS results shows that bullying begins at an early age, and achievement gaps between frequently and infrequently bullied students also emerge in the early years of education.
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