The health and other risks associated with early pregnancy and sexual activity raise urgent need for appropriate interventions and programs to address adolescent reproductive behaviors.
Background: Despite the significant proportion of young people residing in slum communities, little attention has been paid to the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges they face during their transition to adulthood within this harsh environment.
This discussion paper was prepared by UNESCO for the global consultation on education sector responses to early and unintended pregnancy (EUP) held in Johannesburg in November 2014.
The World Health Organisation, amongst others, recognises that adolescent men have a vital yet neglected role in reducing teenage pregnancies and that there is a pressing need for educational interventions designed especially for them.
Teenage childbearing and attainment at school in South Africa are investigated using nationally-representative data from the National Income Dynamics Study. The analysis focuses on the outcomes by 2010 of a panel of 673 childless young women aged 15–18 in 2008.
The report draws on data from four Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS) (1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008/09), the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) (2007), the Kenya Service Provision Assessment (KSPA) (2004 and 2010) and the Kenya National Survey for Persons with Disabilities (KNSPWD) (2008).
Approximately 30% of teenagers in South Africa report ‘ever having been pregnant’, the majority, unplanned. While this number has decreased over the past few decades, it is still unacceptably high. The figure is for all teenagers.
Unintended pregnancy is common in Uganda, leading to high levels of unplanned births, unsafe abortions, and maternal injury and death. Because most pregnancies that end in abortion are unwanted, nearly all ill health and mortality resulting from unsafe abortion is preventable.
Every day in developing countries, 20,000 girls below age 18 give birth. Nine in 10 of these births occur within marriage or a union. This has consequences on the health, education, employment and rights of an untold millions of girls.
Swaziland has no stand-alone re-entry policy.