This report is on a study which responds to the call for greater analysis of the problem in different country contexts by examining the impact of adult mortality and orphan status on primary school enrollment in Tanzania. Findings include that enrollment rates for both primary and secondary schooling in Tanzania are below the average for Africa and secondary enrollment rate among the lowest in the world. In the Kagera Region, where the study took place, HIV infection rates in the late 1980s ranged from less than 1% to as high as 25%; the AIDS epidemic had driven the adult mortality rate to levels 3 times higher than expected. This study serves as an important reminder that in many of the hardest hit countries, the AIDS pandemic is exacerbating long-standing problems of low enrollments and educational outcomes, making the resolutions stated even more urgent.
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