Gender nonconforming youth: Discipline disparities, school push-out, and the school-to-prison pipeline

Case Studies & Research
San Francisco, CA
Tucson, AZ
Gay-Straight Alliance Network
Crossroads Collaborative at the University of Arizona
12 p.

The school-to-prison pipeline, or STPP, refers to a set of school policies and practices that push students away from education and onto a pathway toward the juvenile detention and the prison industrial complex. School policies and practices that promote the STPP include “zero tolerance” policies, increased police presence, suspension and expulsion, and harsh and disparate disciplinary practices. Research has demonstrated that students pushed out by such policies, practices, and disciplinary disparities are disproportionally students of color and low-income students. However, findings from this research study are consistent with other recent studies suggesting that disabled, LGBTQ, and GNC students are also facing discipline disparities and school push out.6 Our research shows that GNC youth in particular face persistent and frequent harassment and bias-based bullying from peers and school staff as well as relatively greater incidents of harsh school discipline, and consistent blame for their own victimization.

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