We examine how school attendance and nutritional status differ between orphaned and fostered children, and between children of HIV-infected parents and non-HIV-infected parents in Kenya. Our analysis is based on information on 2,756 children age 0-4 years and 4,172 children age 6-14 years included in the male subsample of the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The 2003 Kenya DHS is one of the first population-based, nationally representative surveys to link individual HIV test results for both males (age 15-54 years) and females (age 15-49 years) in one-half of the sample households with the full set of behavioral, social, and demographic indicators included in the survey. Data are analyzed using both descriptive and multivariate logistic regression methods. The results indicate that orphaned and fostered children (age 6-14 years) are significantly less likely to be attending school than nonorphaned, non-fostered children of HIV-negative parents. We find no clear pattern of relationship between orphanhood and nutritional status of children, although fostered children are somewhat more likely to be stunted, underweight, and wasted than children of HIV-negative parents. Children of HIV-infected parents are significantly less likely to be attending school, more likely to be underweight and wasted, and less likely to receive treatment for ARI and diarrhea than children of non-HIV-infected parents. We also find that children of non-HIV-infected single mothers (with no spouse) are generally more disadvantaged in nutrition, health care, and schooling than children who live with both non- HIV-infected parents. There is no relationship between parent HIV status and either stunting or immunization coverage.
DHS Working Papers 2005 No.24
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